Glossary of Terms in Mexican History
Bourbon Reforms economic and administrative reforms instituted in New Spain in the early 1700s to help the economy grow, protect New Spain from other colonial powers and inrease political control of New Spain by the French Bourbons, who had replaced the Habsburgs on the Spanish throne .
Chichimeca Generic term for the nomadic tribes in northern Mexico, the most famous of which were the Atecs .
conhineal One of the major exports of colonial Mexico. A red dye produced from an insect that lives on the nopal cactus, grown mainly by the Mixtecs in the Oaxaca .
crillo Person of Spanish parentage, but born in Mexico . Often denied higher level positions in colonial Mexico .
Cristero war A conservative, pro-church revolt against the anti church policies of the liberals who held power from 1926-29.
CROM regional Confederation of Mexican Labor, powerful national labor union started by Luis Morones
fueros privileges granted to priests and army officers exempting them from the jurisdiction of the civil courts
Grito de Dolores Call to arms by Father Miguel Hidalgo for independence from Spain .
harquebus Large, matchlock guns invented in Spain and used in the Conquest .
leva forced conscription used during Diaz and the Mexican Revolution
lucha libre Mexican professional wrestling
mestizo person of mixed white and Indian ancestry
Nahuatl language of the Aztecs and many other tribes of central Mexico
Olmec One of the first civilizations of Mexico located in modern day Veracruz state
porfiriato Regime of Porfirio Diaz from 1876 to 1911.
pragmatica royal decree
PRI Revolutionary Institutional Party, dominant political party in the second half of the 20th century. President Fox was the first president who was not from PRI.
pronunciamiento revolt or military uprising
Quetzalcoatl Feathered serpent , Aztec sky and creator god, a combination of quetzal, a brightly colored Mesoamerican bird, and coatl, meaning serpent
rurales rural police established to stop banditos in the late 18th and early 20 century .